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Types and symptoms of bone fractures and their treatment methods

A broken bone is an injury that occurs in a bone and causes it to split. This condition is usually not life-threatening, but it needs medical attention and transports the injured person to the hospital or clinic of a specialist doctor as soon as possible.
Fractures occur due to applying excessive pressure to the bone, causing the bone to break either completely or partially. And there are cases of fractures called pathological fractures, which occur under the slightest pressure because of their weakness, as in the case of osteoporosis or bone cancer.
The types of fractures vary depending on the injury's circumstances and the amount of force applied to the bone.

Types of fractures:

A simple or closed fracture occurs when the bone is broken into two pieces while the skin surface remains intact.
An open fracture occurs when the broken bone penetrates the skin's surface or if the fracture's force has also torn the skin.
Compound fracture: which occurs when a bone fracture is accompanied by the presence of other injuries to the adjacent internal organs, such as the heart, liver, or nerves, depending on the location of the injury.
Comminuted fracture: which occurs when the bone is broken into at least three pieces.
Greenstick fracture (hair) occurs when a portion of the bone is broken only while the outer layer is still intact, called the periosteum. It often occurs in children and is quickly healed.

Symptoms of bone fractures:

If one or more of these symptoms appear, this indicates that there are fractures in the affected area:
  • The presence of severe pain at the site of the injury that worsens with movement.
  • Swelling, numbness, or a bluish color in the affected area.
  • Deformation of the joints or extremities if the injury occurred in the arm or leg.
  • Bones penetrate the surface of the skin.
  • Excessive bleeding at the site of the injury.
You should call an ambulance directly if there are any of the following signs:
  • If the patient no longer moves, is not breathing, or has a stopped heartbeat.
  • If you suspect a broken head, neck, or back.
  • The appearance of deformity in the shape of the joint or limbs.
  • The bone penetrates the surface of the skin.
  • The presence of severe bleeding.

Emergency treatment for a broken bone:

Do not move the patient unless necessary, to avoid further damage. But before that, you must pay attention to the affected area to prevent its movement. And it would help if you took the following actions until the arrival of medical help:
Stop the bleeding by applying light pressure to the wound with a clean cloth.
Do not try to move the affected area, such as applying pressure on the bone or trying to restore it to its normal position.
You can apply ice packs to reduce swelling and help relieve pain. However, the ice cannot be applied directly to the skin. The ice must be wrapped in a towel or piece of cloth first.
Shock treatment, if the patient feels faint or short of breath with a heart rhythm disorder, the patient must lie down so that the level of the torso is higher than the head, and it is preferable to raise the legs if possible with the patient covered to maintain the internal body temperature.
To relieve pain, you can give the patient ibuprofen or acetaminophen.
Please do not ask him to move the injured area to check for a fracture, as this can double the severity of the injury.
Try to talk to him about how the accident happened, etc. so that he remains as awake as possible and does not lose consciousness.

It would help if you refrained from giving the victim any fluids or food.

When you arrive at the hospital, the doctor will conduct an X-ray of the affected area to confirm the fracture's presence and determine its type. Then he decides on the nature of the necessary treatment based on the case, it is possible to put a splint or undergo an operation
Fracture healing usually ranges from several weeks to several months, depending on the severity of the fracture, the type of injury, and the patient's age. Fractures that occur in adults require a longer period of time to heal, not less than six weeks, and in children, the fractures heal quickly.
In open fractures, the wound is sterilized and dressed, and the patient is given an anti-tetanus injection.  In addition to broad-spectrum antibiotics, such as second-generation cephalosporins, to prevent the spread of infection and transmission of infection.

Tips for healing fractures faster:

Quitting smoking: The smoker needs a longer time to heal the fractures. Smoking reduces blood flow to the bones. The blood is responsible for providing nutrients to the cells that are necessary to heal fractures.
Follow a balanced diet: Healing fractures requires obtaining a greater amount of food than the body needs to nourish and grow bones in a normal state. Therefore, a person with fractures should follow a diet rich in materials necessary to build bones and heal fractures.
Monitor calcium intake: A person with fractures usually depends on the concentration of calcium in their diet. This is true, but everything must be balanced. Excessive doses of calcium will not help you recover faster than balanced doses.
Please adhere to your treatment plan: Depending on the condition of the fracture in each injured person, the doctor prescribes the necessary instructions for his recovery, so you must adhere to the recommended instructions to ensure a faster recovery. For example, trying to walk on a broken foot earlier when the fracture has healed will delay the healing time.
Learn more about broken bone healing burning sensation.