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What is a full-stack developer, and what does it do?

The term full-stack developer is somewhat controversial in the tech community; while many refute the existence of such a nomenclature, many argue. Full-stack if it comes from the English for "full-stack" or rather "all layers", then first we have to understand that this term has been adapting its meaning. I remember when I started working with technology more than ten years ago, many used this definition for people who understood all layers of web development, including frontend, backend, and infrastructure/database. Currently, when someone refers to the entire stack, they are probably referring to a developer acting on both layers: Frontend and Backend.
There is a joke of referring to a full-stack developer as the duck developer. Because the duck swims, walks, and flies but does not do any rights. I think it is rather possible for a developer to be good at everything he does, but surely the vast majority who are called full-stack are not. If you look at my blog or even my linkedin, you will see that I use the term full-stack; although I don't like it very much, it is more because the term is used by people and recruiters when it comes to finding you. At the end of the article, I will talk a little more about why I don't think that term is ideal to be used today.
 

Understand the layers

A web application has technology layers; in short, we can list two main ones: Frontend (Client-side/Client side); Backend (server side/server side);
The full-stack developer currently has to be able to act on these two layers, be able to develop the business rule on the backend, and develop the front end. So if the developer can program in PHP, which is a backend language, and knows how to assemble a basic structure in HTML / CSS / Javascript, he can theoretically already call himself a full-stack.
 

Full-Stack developer controversy

These days I find it very generic and perhaps something excellent to call a full-stack, all the layers have evolved further, and today you have internal divisions in frontend and backend. Previously frontend was who knew how to mess with HTML, CSS, and Javascript, today we find frontend developers who only know Javascript, or simply HTML and CSS. This specialization came about thanks to advances in front frames, which have become complex frames due to user demand for more interactive interfaces and better usability. The same scenario applies to the back end and even the infrastructure. In my opinion, we cannot consider the term full stack developer totally correct because, after all stacks need to be included: We have the cloud environment, infrastructure (Linux, Windows), mobile (iOS, Android, hybrids), etc. So if all these layers are part of the application, the entire stack developer should theoretically know how to move even a little through all of them. The stack has grown too big, gone too far, and from what I find unlikely these days, there will be a truly 100% complete stack developer. That's my position on the theory behind the nomenclature (and then okay?). The discussion is long, but it's not worth wasting your time, just understand that when someone refers to a full stack, they are probably referring to the front and back. I don't judge who uses the term, as I explained at the beginning of the article that I still use for reference reasons, and at the end of the day, so much, after all,
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